First a few resources:
Some ideas from OneStopEnglish.
Teaching phrasals with music from iTESLj.
On food-related phrasal verbs (knock it back, bolt it down, pig out) from iTESLj.
An interesting dialogue from ManyThings - you could use this in class.
LB: " ... TV programs, radio interviews and pop music are a wonderful source for phrasal verbs. I think one of the best ways of learning them is in everyday contexts. One good one is people's daily routine. We 'get up' in the morning, we 'put on' our clothes and 'take off' our clothes at the end of the day, we 'turn on' the coffee maker or the TV set... After we eat we 'clean up.' If we're concerned about our health, we go to the gym and we ... "
RS: "Work out."
LB: "There you go. Another wonderful context for phrasal verbs is traveling.
What does an airplane do?"
AA: "It 'takes off.' "
LB: "It 'takes off,' that's right. And lots of phrasal verbs connected with hotels. So when we get to the hotel we 'check in,' and you can save a lot of money if you ... "
Most sources advocate learning phrasal verbs as any other part of vocabulary, though an introduction to them could certainly help students recognise them when they turn up. Here's a short version:
"Phrasal verbs are (usually common) verbs followed by what is sometimes called a 'particle'. This 'particle' is either a preposition or an adverb, or possibly one of each. The most important thing is that learners should understand as many phrasal verbs as possible and be able to use them. Fluent English speakers use them all the time." (adapted from English in Valencia)
We use phrasal verbs in three ways:
1) to describe an action literally.
The majority of phrasal verbs are like this. The meaning is the combination of the two words. This shouldn't be too problematic.
2) to intensify or emphasise an action.
This is less common. Sometimes the meaning is literal - the rain pours down - and sometimes it isn't - you eat up your dinner. However, the general meaning is the same as if you're using the verb alone (eat your dinner, pour with rain, etc).
3) as verbs with a special meaning.
These are the phrasals that are 'greater then the sum of their parts'. Knowing what the individual parts mean is of little help in deciphering these verbs. It's necessary to learn the meanings of each of this type of phrasal verb as a whole.
Furthermore, there are four types:
Type 1 - take no object:
He turned the TV off and went to bed.
I'm looking for my credit card. Have you seen it?
Do you get on with your neighbours?
Get on with your work!
Even easier is to treat them as you treat any other vocabulary you learn. Don't think of them as a special subject that has to be learnt. They're only words! If you find a useful phrasal verb, learn it like you would learn the word for 'table' or 'ashtray' or anything else. But make sure you write down the structure. Even better would be to note down a couple of sentences using the verb so that you have a context to remember it in.
For practice, some web sites just don't hold with phrasals; some dish them out. Sadly, I haven't been able to get hold of any good sources yet.
There's a complete and easy-to-use Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs over at Cambridge Dictionaries. Recommended.